Nuclear regulatory authority
The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE) is the competent regulatory authority for the control, regulation and supervision in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear technology, radiological and nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EEAE mission is the protection of the public, workers and the environment from ionising and artificially produced non-ionising radiation. Moreover, its participation in the "General Civil Protection Plan" entails responsibilities for the prevention, preparedness and response to radiological emergencies. EEAE also participates in the "National Emergency Plan for Nuclear, Radiological, Biological and Chemical Threats" (CBRN).
There is one research reactor (GRR-1) in extended shutdown and two subcritical assemblies, one dismantled and one in operation.
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management
Greece has no nuclear power plants. Spent fuel management is therefore relevant only with the operation of the research reactor (GRR-1) at the National Centre for Scientific Research "Demokritos" (NCSR "D"). GRR-1 is licensed for extended shutdown and the irradiated fuel stored in the reactor is covered by an agreement with the US Department of Energy for shipment back to the USA until 2019.
Radioactive waste in Greece originates from medicine, research and industry, including waste from the past operation of GRR-1 (regeneration bed resins, irradiated objects, etc.). The gross majority of the radioactive waste in Greece is VERY Short-Lived Waste (VSLW), Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and Low Level Waste (LLW). Very little amount of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) may potentially be produced from the decommissioning of the GRR-1. HLW does not exist.
Greece does not have a disposal facility. There is an interim storage facility of radioactive waste, which operates under the Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety (INRSTES) of the National Centre for Scientific Research "Demokritos" (NCSR"D"). Radioactive waste, radioactive sources and other radioactive materials (e.g. lightning rods) from activities countrywide are temporarily stored on site or in the interim storage facility, until a solution for their final management is reached. Finally, waste with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) results from some industrial activities, while tens of tonnes of soil contaminated with NORM originated from phosphoric fertilizer industry are managed by landfill deposition.
The repatriation of radioactive sources and radioactive materials is the preferred option for the management of sealed sources. As from 1990, prior to import of any radioactive source, a legal written declaration from the source manufacturer for accepting back the source after its useful life, is necessary, as well as a legal written declaration from the source user for undertaking all financial and administrative provisions to export the source back to the manufacturer or other licensed storage / recycling facility abroad. For liquid VSLW, the decay and clearance is the preferred management option, according to the clearance levels. Facilities operating delay tanks are hospitals / clinics for thyroid iodine therapies and NCSR "D" for the liquids originated in GRR-1 in the past.
Main legal instruments
- Government Gazette, Ministerial Decision P/112/305, Folio No. 2877, Second Issue, October 26, 2012, "Basic requirements - principles of nuclear safety and regulatory supervision of nuclear research reactors"
- Government Gazette, Presidential Decree No. 60, Folio No. 111, First Issue, May 3, 2012, "Establishing a National framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations" (transposition of the Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom of 25 June 2009)
- Government Gazette, Presidential Decree No. 610, Folio No. 130, First issue, August 23, 1978, "Establishing terms and procedures in licensing Public Power Corporation to construct a nuclear power plant on a specific site "(the Public Power Corporation is the Greek national utility)".
- Government Gazette, Act No. 854, Folio No. 54, First Issue, March 18, 1971, "On the terms regarding the establishment and operation of nuclear facilities."
Spent fuel and radioactive waste management:
- Government Gazette, Ministerial Decision P/112/214196/30.12.2015, Folio No. 2941, Second issue, December 31, 2015, "National programme for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste"
- Government Gazette, Ministerial Decision 131207/13/20.8.2015, Folio No. 858, Second Issue, August 27, 2015, "National policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste"
- Government Gazette, Presidential Decree No. 122, Folio No. 177, First issue, August 12, 2013, "Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste"
- Government Gazette, Presidential Decree No. 91, Folio No. 130, First issue, September 1, 2017, "Legislative, regulatory and organizational framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste and amendment of the Presidential Decree. 122/2013"
- Government Gazette, Ministerial Decision No. 10828/(EFA)1897, Folio No. 859, Second Issue, July 10, 2006, "Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources" (transposition of the Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom)
- Government Gazette, Joint Ministerial Decision No. 1014 (FOR) 94, Folio No. 216, Second Issue, March 6, 2001, "Approval of RPR"
- Government Gazette, Ministerial Decision No. 9087 (FOR) 1004, Folio No. 849, Second Issue, September 13, 1996, "Operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas".
- Government Gazette, Legislative Decree No. 181, Folio No. 347, First Issue, November 20, 1974, "Protection against ionising radiation"
Implementation of International Instruments:
Greece has ratified the international conventions related to nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, with the following laws:
- Government Gazette, Law No. 2824, Folio No. 90, First Issue, march 16, 2000, "Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management"
- Government Gazette, Law No. 2480, Folio No. 70, First Issue, May 14, 1997, "Ratification of the Nuclear Safety Convention"
- Government Gazette, Law No. 1937, Folio No. 35, First Issue, March 13, 1991, "Ratification of the International Convention in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergencies"
- Government Gazette, Law No. 1938, Folio No. 36, First Issue, March 13, 1991, "Ratification of the International Treaty on Early Notification in case of a Nuclear Accident"
- Government Gazette, Law No. 1758, Folio No. 44, First Issue, March 10, 1988, "Ratification of the Protocol Amending the Convention on Third Party Liability on the Field of Nuclear Energy of 19 July 1960, as it was modified by the Additional Protocol of the 28 January 1964"
A complete list of national legislation is available at the EEAE website: www.eeae.gr
Last updated on 4 December 2017